The history of these means in the fight against locusts -and other agricultural pests- have received much attention from scholars, especially in the case of insecticides.
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At the end of the nineteenth and beginnings of the twentieth century, this enterprise was taken up enthusiastically by entomologists and other scientists worldwide and numerous trial introductions were made in the following decades under various degrees of scientific control. This implied a global circulation not only of knowledge, technologies, peoples, and instruments but also of different kind of organisms.
The new field presented the promise of a natural, pest-free future for agriculture although the results obtained were controversial, particularly for combating locusts. Not just to eradicate or manage a particular "plague" but to control nature. Here I will focus on this subject through the study of different experiences on locust biological control and its narratives in Argentina during the first half of the twentieth century.
John P. Gordon Barrett , University Of Oxford. How international scientific cooperation played out in Cold War politics and knowledge production has been a central concern for historians of science. The connection between U. This panel sheds lights on unexplored but central questions connected to this issue: What did "cooperation" mean to actors in the Cold War context? What socio-political conditions and material infrastructure made cooperation available or led to failure?
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Wasn't regional cooperation within East Asia important as much as aid from superpowers? Hyun examines how the notion of cooperation was contested, negotiated, and redefined between South Korean and the U. DiMoia illuminates how Japanese and South Korean parasitologists revitalized their colonial medical network in the name of development aid projects after the normalization of diplomatic relations in Luk looks at an international oceanographic project known as "Cooperative Study of the Kuroshio and Adjacent Regions" — and reveals the politics of international cooperation and competition between Chinese and Japanese scientists.
Barrett explores the rhetoric and reality of regional cooperation in the planning and execution of the Peking Science Symposium, discussing China's efforts to establish itself as the central scientific power in the developing world. Bringing together diverse cooperative projects, this panel provides opportunities to rethink the nature of scientific cooperation in Cold War East Asia beyond the history of technical aid. In this period, the U. National Academy of Sciences NAS newly initiated bilateral scientific cooperation between the NAS and similar organizations in developing countries along the line of the developmental turn of the U.
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Korean and U. The different understandings between them over the nature of their cooperative relationship provoked a nationalist backlash from the Korean side, strengthened financial controls from the Smithsonian side, and finally led to the failure of the project.
In doing so, it illuminates the contested nature of Cold War US-Korea scientific collaboration which hid behind consensual American hegemony. Presented by : John P. This paper undertaken with Aya Homei of Manchester University depicts how anti-parasite and family planning campaigns developed in Japan and Korea independently after the Second World War, as specifically domestic public health initiatives that directly contributed to the post-war reconstruction Japan and nation-building South Korea exercises, and examines how they were later incorporated into development aid projects from the s.
In the South Korean case, leading parasitologists, including Dr. Seo Byung Seol of Seoul National University, re-engaged with their Japanese colleagues, while also reaching out to Southeast Asia as a mentor, and potential model.
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By juxtaposing domestic histories of Japan as a former coloniser, and South Korea as its former colony, the paper explores colonial legacies in post-war medical cooperation in East Asia. Furthermore, by clarifying how Japanese and South Korean development aid projects both grew from the links that existed in their respective domestic histories, the paper aims to highlight complexities engrained in the history and to shed new light into a historiography that often locates the origins of development aid in colonial history.
If South Korean developmentalism dates its origins to this intense period of networking late s, early s , the outreach remains distinct from the colonial period, even while containing uncomfortable resonances with it.
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It is a west-to-east flowing warm current in the Northeast Pacific region. This paper explores the complexity of scientific cooperation manifested in the divergent interests held by Chinese and Japanese scientists in the CSK. Just as Japanese oceanographers held different sets of concerns and expectation over the CSK than their Soviet counterparts, the Chinese delegates of the CSK also expressed different interests than their Japanese colleagues.
Through studying the national differences in the international survey of the Pacific current, this paper aims to shed light on the politics of oceanographic internationalism as intertwined along the Pacific coasts.
Accordingly, the event was open only to scientists from countries in Asia, Africa, Oceania, and Latin America, pointedly excluding those from other parts of the world. Yet for all that the Peking Science Symposium was a vehicle for Chinese ambitions toward increased influence in international science, the event was also ostensibly organised in close collaboration along with communist parties from North Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Japan. This paper examines the nature and significance of the involvement of regional collaborators — both scientific and political — in the Peking Science Symposium.
Chemistry in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Alison McManus , Princeton University. Christoph Maulbetsch , University Of Stuttgart. Sponsored by the Society of the History of Alchemy and Chemistry. This paper, which is also a contribution to the somewhat understudied area of the history of biography, discusses a couple of short accounts of the life of the English chemist Humphry Davy and the three major biographies published in the years following his death.
Furthermore, this approach reveals how his surviving manuscripts and related documents came to be collected and preserved and so help us understand the effects they continue to exert on our understanding of Davy in particular and nineteenth-century science in general. The reception of the periodic system of elements in European countries has its specificity and differences.
This paper will explore the first recognition of the periodic system of elements in Croatia after its publication Chronologically, Croatian scientific community firstly recognized Mendeleev's work through Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts in , electing him as its honorary member. The proposal for Mendeleev's election lists his published works but emphasizes that the discovery of the periodic system of elements lex Mendeleev alone would be enough to elect him as an honorary member. Circumstances regarding this election will be presented in the paper. Until the University in Zagreb, capital of Croatia, was restored , chemistry in Croatia was only thought at a lower level, as a part of real-high schools curriculum.
The discovery of the periodic system of elements and the following discoveries that lead to its confirmation occurs simultaneously with the development of the chemistry curriculum at Zagreb University. The first University professors were also the members of Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts that elected Mendeleev as its honorary member. The connection between the role of the Academy of Sciences and Arts and the implementation of the periodic system in the educational process in Croatia will also be explored in the paper. Botanist Ezra J. Officially, his task was to review manuscripts prior to their publication and to withhold those of military significance.
Department of Agriculture, chemical weapons research at Camp Detrick, and his advocacy of prompt publication following V-J Day.
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This illustrious word had been introduced into the sociology of science by Robert Merton in the ies. Since then it has become a vogue word for all kinds of accidental discoveries, but if it is used as a description of a logic of discovery it can serve as a historiographical tool. The discovery by Paneth in of bismuth hydride, which I will describe in some detail, is a conspicuous example of making use of abductive reasoning in chemistry. Notwithstanding its inherent fallibility I would like to suggest that the abduction pattern is one gateway to novelty in science.
This paper will examine an oft-overlooked development in the history of twentieth-century biology: the rise of bioenergetics, or the study of energy transformations in living organisms. Through a case study of the work of biochemist Fritz Albert Lipmann and his associates, this paper will describe the changing role of the molecule adenosine triphosphate ATP in bioenergetic research.
Surekha Davies , Utrecht University. Moderators Surekha Davies , Utrecht University. In recent years, scholars of early modern science have emphasized the visual aspects of natural knowledge during the period that was once called the scientific revolution. This panel examines how images and knowledge circulated between painters, draughtsmen, printmakers, naturalists and scientific practitioners.
We interpret the development of early modern science in a global context, and investigate how European, Latin American and Asian practitioners interacted with each other, exchanging and producing textual and visual information in the process. We also critically examine the limitations of such an approach, paying a special attention to what factors hindered or completely blocked the circulation in the period, both across the globe and across different professional backgrounds.
This panel is highly diverse, incl. The speakers range from art historians through museum curators to historians of science. Interest in Stradanus was limited to the circles of the Medici in Florence, who used his prints to invent a tradition of supporting learnings and craftsmanship, and to a few humanists and antiquarians who used the Nova reperta within a highly religious framework.
I design immediately to settle the Affair at Sight of the Object. Such devices were ingenious alternative responses to the challenge of rendering two-dimensional objects on a three-dimensional surface and themselves reached considerable levels of complexity, but the extent to which they were actually used by practicing artists remains unclear.
The paper places particular emphasis on instances of human and animal inventive and ingenious behaviour in the early modern American context: from the unique comportment of certain creatures to various cunning practices involving artefacts and materials. Portraying a dingo and a kangaroo, these images were among the first to depict recently-discovered Pacific flora and fauna for a European audience. Yet Stubbs — whose paintings of animals were valued for their anatomical precision rooted in direct observation — had never actually seen these creatures.
Situated between specimen and spectacle, this paper will show, these images created a framework for visualising Pacific exploration that shaped not only how British audiences imagined the remote region but also how scientific knowledge about it was disseminated to a wider public. Presented by : Surekha Davies , Utrecht University. Isabel Van Paasschen , Yale University.
Pamela Mackenzie , Ph. Candidate, University Of British Columbia. Ashley Gonik , History, Harvard University. Julia Marino , Princeton University. Moderators Johan Schot. Marsha Richmond , Wayne State University.
Bernard Lightman , York University. The original concept was to provide one full session for graduate students to present a five-minute talk on their thesis project followed by a five-minute question period. If anyone goes over their 5 minute presentation time they lost the time from their 5 minute question period.