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Submission textes

Note: additional files will not be typeset so they must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication. If data used in the research project has not been made available, a statement confirming this should be added, along with reasoning why. Where applicable, studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval.

The identity of the research subject s should be anonymised whenever possible.

Introduction

For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants or their legal guardian and added to this statement. Experiments using animals must follow national standards of care. Competing interests If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Authors' contributions A sentence or a short paragraph detailing the roles that each author held to contribute to the authorship of the submission. References All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.

Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions i.

Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions. Spelling Submissions must be made in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission. When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used. Grammar American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format see above.

For instance, you may use a serial comma or not. Font The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size.

Introduction

This may be changed during the typesetting process and will not necessarily be the published font. Bold or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, although should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency. Lists Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used. Quotation marks Use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.

Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder. If some of the original quote is being omitted then an ellipsis with a space on either side must be used to break the text. Words added to the original quote text, to enhance clarity, must be placed within square brackets.

Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.

A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here. Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops. Trade names To ensure impartiality, trade names should be avoided in favour of generic names, unless absolutely necessary.

Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.

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Symbols Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage. Hyphenation, em and en dashes There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.

Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace comas, parentheses, colons or semicolons. No space should be around the dash. Numbers For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.


  1. Varianzen in der erfolgreichen Einflussnahme auf Inhalte der Europäischen Kommission zwischen organisierten Interessen: Warum können Interessengruppen ... gut durchsetzen? (German Edition).
  2. Como Utilizar el 90% de la Capacidad Mental que no se Ocupa (Spanish Edition);
  3. Die Liebe (German Edition).
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We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures i. If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.

Example: amp-form - destcravatanem.cf

If a number is presented with a symbol then the figure must be not separated from the unit by a space. If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number. When a number consists of more than four digits it must be split by a comma after every three digits to the left of the decimal place.

Units of measurement Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. Months and Years When in the main text, months must be written in full. If displayed as part of a dataset then a shortened version is acceptable as long as the meaning is still clear.

Months should always begin with a capital letter. Fractions When presented in the main text, fractions must be written in non-hyphenated words, not figures. Figures Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask to re-render or omit it. All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals e. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.

The progress of a Spark Streaming program can also be monitored using the StreamingListener interface, which allows you to get receiver status and processing times. Note that this is a developer API and it is likely to be improved upon i. Getting the best performance out of a Spark Streaming application on a cluster requires a bit of tuning. This section explains a number of the parameters and configurations that can be tuned to improve the performance of you application.

At a high level, you need to consider two things:.


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  • Setting the right batch size such that the batches of data can be processed as fast as they are received that is, data processing keeps up with the data ingestion. There are a number of optimizations that can be done in Spark to minimize the processing time of each batch.

    These have been discussed in detail in the Tuning Guide. This section highlights some of the most important ones. Receiving data over the network like Kafka, Flume, socket, etc. If the data receiving becomes a bottleneck in the system, then consider parallelizing the data receiving. Note that each input DStream creates a single receiver running on a worker machine that receives a single stream of data.

    Receiving multiple data streams can therefore be achieved by creating multiple input DStreams and configuring them to receive different partitions of the data stream from the source s. For example, a single Kafka input DStream receiving two topics of data can be split into two Kafka input streams, each receiving only one topic. This would run two receivers, allowing data to be received in parallel, thus increasing overall throughput. These multiple DStreams can be unioned together to create a single DStream.

    Then the transformations that were being applied on a single input DStream can be applied on the unified stream.

    Spark Streaming Programming Guide

    This is done as follows. The number of blocks in each batch determines the number of tasks that will be used to process the received data in a map-like transformation. For example, block interval of ms will create 10 tasks per 2 second batches. If the number of tasks is too low that is, less than the number of cores per machine , then it will be inefficient as all available cores will not be used to process the data.

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    To increase the number of tasks for a given batch interval, reduce the block interval. However, the recommended minimum value of block interval is about 50 ms, below which the task launching overheads may be a problem. This distributes the received batches of data across the specified number of machines in the cluster before further processing. Cluster resources can be under-utilized if the number of parallel tasks used in any stage of the computation is not high enough.

    For example, for distributed reduce operations like reduceByKey and reduceByKeyAndWindow , the default number of parallel tasks is controlled by the spark. You can pass the level of parallelism as an argument see PairDStreamFunctions documentation , or set the spark. The overheads of data serialization can be reduced by tuning the serialization formats. In the case of streaming, there are two types of data that are being serialized. That is, the data is serialized into bytes to reduce GC overheads, and replicated for tolerating executor failures.